Cite this paper:
Michael R. CONOVER, Mark E. BELL, Leah M. DELAHOUSSAYE. Viability and hatchability of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana cysts after passing through the digestive system of eared grebes Podiceps nigricollis[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2023, 41(4): 1300-1306

Viability and hatchability of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana cysts after passing through the digestive system of eared grebes Podiceps nigricollis

Department of Wildland Resources and Ecology Center, Logan, UT 84322-5230, USA
Brine shrimp Artemia franciscana provide food for many migrating and staging birds that spend summer and fall on Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Artemia produce live young and cysts (hard-walled eggs); these cysts are commercially harvested on Great Salt Lake and support a large industry in Utah. It is unclear the impact that millions of hungry birds have on the Artemia population in the lake. To help assess that, this study evaluated cyst viability (percentage of cysts that contain an embryo) and hatchability (percent of cysts that hatch) from cysts that had passed through the digestive tract of eared grebes Podiceps nigricollis and cysts obtained directly from Great Salt Lake at the same site where each grebe was collected. Hatchability was significantly higher for cysts collected from the water column (19%) than from the stomach (0.3%) or intestines (3%) of eared grebes. Viability also was significantly different for cysts collected from the water column (29%), stomach (0.7%), and intestines (5%). These results indicate that eared grebes nutritionally benefit from eating cysts and that they may be an important food source for grebes in late fall after the adult population of Artemia dies off due to the water becoming too cold. Also, enough cysts survive their passage through the digestive system that grebes can vector hatchable cysts to other waterbodies.
Key words:    Artemia|dispersal|eared grebes|hatchability|invasive species|Great Salt Lake|salty lakes|viability   
Received: 2022-06-05   Revised:
PDF (776 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by Michael R. CONOVER
Articles by Mark E. BELL
Articles by Leah M. DELAHOUSSAYE
Agami M, Waisel Y. 1986. The role of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in distribution and germination of seeds of the submerged hydrophyte Najas marina L. Oecologia, 68(3): 473-475.
Amat F, Hontoria F, Navarro J C et al. 2007. Biodiversity loss in the genus Artemia in the Western Mediterranean Region. Limnetica, 26(2): 387-404.
Amat F, Hontoria F, Ruiz O et al. 2005. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean. Biological Invasions, 7(1): 37-47.
Amat J A, Varo N, Sánchez M I et al. 2014. Female-biased sex ratio in moulting black-necked grebes Podiceps nigricollis in southern Spain. Ardea, 102(2): 207-212.
Barrett K L, Belovsky G E. 2020. Invertebrates and phytoplankton of Great Salt Lake: is salinity the driving factor? In: Baxter B K, Butler J K eds. Great Salt Lake Biology. Springer, Switzerland. p.145-173.
Belovsky G E, Stephens D, Perschon C et al. 2011. The Great Salt Lake ecosystem (Utah, USA): long term data and a structural equation approach. Ecosphere, 2(3):1-40.
Browne R A, Halanych K M. 1989. Competition between sexual and parthenogenetic Artemia: a re-evaluation(Branchiopoda, Anostraca). Crustaceana, 57(1): 57-71.
Carbonell J A, Céspedes V, Green A J. 2021. Is the spread of the alien water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis(Hemiptera, Corixidae) aided by zoochory and drought resistant eggs? Freshwater Biology, 66(3): 409-420.
Caudell J N, Conover M R. 2006. Energy content and digestibility of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and other prey items of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) on the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Biological Conservation, 130(2): 251-254.
Conover M R, Bell M E. 2020. Importance of Great Salt Lake to pelagic birds: eared grebes, phalaropes, gulls, ducks, and white pelicans. In: Baxter B K, Butler J K eds. Great Salt Lake Biology. Springer, Switzerland. p. 239-262.
Conover M R, Vest J L. 2009. Selenium and mercury concentrations in California gulls breeding on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28(2): 324-329.
Ellis H I, Jehl J R Jr. 2003. Temperature regulation and the constraints of climate in the eared grebe. Waterbirds, 26(3): 275-279.
Farmer J A, Webb E B, Pierce R A et al. 2017. Evaluating the potential for weed seed dispersal based on waterfowl consumption and seed viability. Pest Management Science, 73(12): 2592-2603.
Frank M G, Conover M R. 2017. Weather and prey availability affect the timing of fall migration of Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) from Great Salt Lake. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 129(1): 98-111.
Frisch D, Lejeusne C, Hayashi M et al. 2021. Brine chemistry matters: isolation by environment and by distance explain population genetic structure of Artemia franciscana in saline lakes. Freshwater Biology, 66(8):1546-1559.
Gajardo G M, Beardmore J A. 2012. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions. Frontiers in Physiology, 3: 185.
Great Salt Lake Ecosystem Program. 2016. Laboratory Procedures for Determining Hatchability and Percent Full Cysts. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Green A J, Soons M B, Brochet A L et al. 2016. Dispersal of plants by waterbirds. In: Şekercioğlu C H, Wenny D G, Whelan C J eds. Why Birds Matter: Avian Ecological Function and Ecosystem Services. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. p.147-195.
Gwynn J W. 2002. History of the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, Utah. In: Gwynn J W ed. Great Salt Lake: An Overview of Change. Utah Department of Natural Resources and Utah Geological Survey Special Publication, Salt Lake City, Utah. p.375-385.
Hempel-Zawitkowska J. 1971. Resistance of eggs of Artemia salina L. to low temperatures as related to several chosen environmental factors. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 18: 287-294.
Horne F R. 1966. The effect of digestive enzymes on the hatchability of Artemia salina eggs. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 85(2): 271-274.
Horváth Z, Lejeusne C, Amat F et al. 2018. Eastern spread of the invasive Artemia franciscana in the Mediterranean Basin, with the first record from the Balkan Peninsula.Hydrobiologia, 822(1): 229-235.
Kettenring K M. 2016. Viability, dormancy, germination, and intraspecific variation of Bolboschoenus maritimus(alkali bulrush) seeds. Aquatic Botany, 134: 26-30.
Lenz P, Browne R A. 1991. Ecology of Artemia. In: Browne R A, Sorgeloos P, Trotman C N T eds. Artemia Biology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. p.237-254.
Malone C R. 1965. Dispersal of plankton: rate of food passage in mallard ducks. Journal of Wildlife Management, 29(3): 529-533.
Marden B, Brown P, Bosteels T. 2020. Great Salt Lake Artemia: ecosystem functions and services with a global reach. In: Baxter B K, Butler J K eds. Great Salt Lake Biology. Springer, Switzerland. p.175-237.
Marty J E, Kettenring K M. 2017. Seed dormancy break and germination for restoration of three globally important wetland bulrushes. Ecological Restoration, 35(2): 138-147.
Mueller M H, van der Valk A G. 2002. The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands, 22(1): 170-178.
Muñoz J, Amat F, Green A J et al. 2013. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range. PeerJ, 1: e200,
Mura G, Kappas I, Baxevanis A D et al. 2006. Morphological and molecular data reveal the presence of the invasive Artemia franciscana in Margherita di Savoia salterns(Italy). International Review of Hydrobiology, 91(6):539-554.
Proctor V W. 1964. Viability of crustacean eggs recovered from ducks. Ecology, 45(3): 656-658.
Proctor V W, Malone C R, DeVlaming V L. 1967. Dispersal of aquatic organisms: viability of disseminules recovered from the intestinal tract of captive killdeer. Ecology, 48(4): 672-676.
Reynolds C, Miranda N A F, Cumming G S. 2015. The role of waterbirds in the dispersal of aquatic alien and invasive species. Diversity and Distributions, 21(7):744-754.
Roberts A J. 2013. Avian diets in a saline ecosystem: Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Human-Wildlife Interactions, 7(1): 158-168.
Roberts A J, Conover M R. 2013. Eared grebe diet on Great Salt Lake, Utah, and competition with the commercial harvest of brine shrimp cysts. Journal of Wildlife Management, 77(7): 1380-1385.
Sánchez M I, Hortas F, Figuerola J et al. 2012. Comparing the potential for dispersal via waterbirds of a native and an invasive brine shrimp. Freshwater Biology, 57(9):1896-1903.
Sánchez M I, Paredes I, Lebouvier M et al. 2016. Functional role of native and invasive filter-feeders, and the effect of parasites: learning from hypersaline ecosystems. PloS ONE, 11(8): e0161478.
Siegel S. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Stephens D, Birdsey P W Jr. 2002. Population dynamics of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, in Great Salt Lake, and regulation of commercial shrimp harvest. In:Gwynn J W ed. Great Salt Lake: an Overview of Change. Utah Department of Natural Resources and Utah Geological Survey Special Publication, Salt Lake City, Utah. p.327-336.
Tajik H, Moradi M, Rohani S M R et al. 2008. Preparation of chitosan from brine shrimp (Artemia urmiana) cyst shells and effects of different chemical processing sequences on the physicochemical and functional properties of the product. Molecules, 13(6): 1263-1274.
Varo N, Green A J, Sánchez M I et al. 2011. Behavioural and population responses to changing availability of Artemia prey by moulting black-necked grebes, Podiceps nigricollis.Hydrobiologia, 664(1): 163-171.
Vest J L, Conover M R. 2011. Food habits of wintering waterfowl on the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Waterbirds, 34(1): 40-50.
Wurtsbaugh W A, Gliwicz Z M. 2001. Limnological control of brine shrimp population dynamics and cyst production in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Hydrobiologia, 466(1): 119-132.
Copyright © Haiyang Xuebao