Cite this paper:
Song SUN, Haochen XIAN, Ziyuan HU, Xiaoxia SUN, Fang ZHANG. Physical processes determining the distribution patterns of Nemopilema nomurai in the East China Sea[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2023, 41(6): 2160-2165

Physical processes determining the distribution patterns of Nemopilema nomurai in the East China Sea

Song SUN1,2,3,4, Haochen XIAN1,4, Ziyuan HU2,3, Xiaoxia SUN1,2,3,4, Fang ZHANG1,3,4
1 Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Jiaozhou Bay National Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Laoshan Laboratory, Qingdao 266237, China;
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
The giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is the largest and most dangerous jellyfish species in East Asian waters, and the N. nomurai bloom causes serious problem in coastal industries, fisheries, and tourism. In the previous surveys, we found N. nomurai could not be observed in the south of 30°N. In this paper, we analyzed the mechanism of this phenomenon. After exploring the possible impacts of different environmental factors, we found that physical processes are essential to the distribution pattern of N. nomurai rather than biological or chemical factors in the East China Sea. The combination of the location of the initial breeding places of N. nomurai and the current system determine the distribution pattern. This study could provide important insights to the potential control of the giant jellyfish in the Chinese coastal waters.
Key words:    giant jellyfish|Nemopilema nomurai|distribution pattern|physical process|East China Sea   
Received: 2022-11-14   Revised:
PDF (1179 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Email this article to others
Articles by Song SUN
Articles by Haochen XIAN
Articles by Ziyuan HU
Articles by Xiaoxia SUN
Articles by Fang ZHANG
Beardsley R C, Limeburner R, Yu H et al.1985.Discharge of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) into the East China Sea.Continental Shelf Research, 4(1-2):57-76,
Chen C S, Beardsley R C, Limeburner R et al.1994.Comparison of winter and summer hydrographic observations in the Yellow and east china seas and adjacent Kuroshio during 1986.Continental Shelf Research, 14(7-8):909-929,
Cheng J H, Li S F, Ding F Y et al.2004.Primary analysis on the jellyfish blooms and its cause in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea.Modern Fisheries Information, 19(5):10-12, Chinese)
Choi J G, Jo Y H, Moon I J et al.2018.Physical forces determine the annual bloom intensity of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai off the coast of Korea.Regional Studies in Marine Science, 24:55-65,
Choi S Y, Kim H J, Seo M H et al.2021.Density estimation of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) using a drone.Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 49(7):1727-1732,
Condon R H, Duarte C M, Pitt K A et al.2013.Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(3):1000-1005,
Dai Z J, Du J Z, Li J F et al.2008.Runoff characteristics of the Changjiang river during 2006:effect of extreme drought and the impounding of the Three Gorges Dam.Geophysical Research Letters, 35(7):L07406,
Doyle T K, Houghton J D R, Buckley S M et al.2007.The broad-scale distribution of five jellyfish species across a temperate coastal environment.Hydrobiologia, 579(1):29-39,
Feng S, Lin J N, Sun S et al.2018.Hyposalinity and incremental micro-zooplankton supply in early-developed Nemopilema nomurai polyp survival, growth, and podocyst reproduction.Marine Ecology Progress Series, 591:117-128,
Guan B X, Fang G.2006.Winter counter-wind currents off the southeastern China coast:a review.Journal of Oceanography, 62(1):1-24, 72-006-0028-8.
Kawahara M, Uye S I, Ohtsu K et al.2006.Unusual population explosion of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa:Rhizostomeae) in East Asian waters.Marine Ecology Progress Series, 307:161-173,
Li H Y, Li J S, Ding F Y et al.2007.Distribution characteristics of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa:Rhizostomeae) and zooplankton in East China Sea.Chinese Journal of Ecology, 26(12):1974-1980.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Li P, Shi B W, Wang Y P et al.2017.Analysis of the characteristics of offshore currents in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuarine waters based on buoy observations.Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 36(4):13-20,
Li S Z, Zhang Z R, Zhou M et al.2022.The role of fronts in horizontal transports of the Changjiang river plume in summer and the implications for phytoplankton blooms.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 127(8):e2022JC018541,
Li W Q, Ge J Z, Ding P X et al.2021.Effects of dual fronts on the spatial pattern of chlorophyll-a concentrations in and off the Changjiang River estuary.Estuaries and Coasts, 44(5):1408-1418,
Lie H J, Cho C H.2016.Seasonal circulation patterns of the Yellow and East China Seas derived from satellite-tracked drifter trajectories and hydrographic observations.Progress in Oceanography, 146:121-141,
Lie H J, Cho C H, Lee J H et al.2003.Structure and eastward extension of the Changjiang River plume in the east China sea.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 108(C3):3077, 01194.
Lucas C H, Graham W M, Widmer C.2012.Jellyfish life histories:role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations.Advances in Marine Biology, 63:133-196,
Moon J H, Pang I C, Yang J Y et al.2010.Behavior of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in the East China Sea and East/Japan Sea during the summer of 2005:a numerical model approach using a particle-tracking experiment.Journal of Marine Systems, 80(1-2):101-114,
Naimie C E, Blain C A, Lynch D R.2001.Seasonal mean circulation in the Yellow Sea-a model-generated climatology.Continental Shelf Research, 21(6-7):667-695,
Oh S, Kim K Y, Oh H J et al.2022.Spatio-temporal distribution of giant jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai).Water, 14(18):2883,
Purcell J E, Uye S I, Lo W T.2007.Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans:a review.Marine Ecology Progress Series, 350:153-174,
Su J L.1998.Circulation dynamics of the China Seas:north of 18°N.In:Robinson A R, Brink K eds.The Sea Vol.11, The Global Coastal Ocean:Regional Studies and Syntheses.Wiley, New York.p.483-506.
Su J L, Pan Y Q, Liang X S.1994.Kuroshio intrusion and Taiwan Warm Current.In:Zhou D, Liang Y B, Zeng C K eds.Oceanology of China Seas.Vol.1-2.Springer, Dordrecht.p.59-70,
Sun S, Zhang F, Li C L et al.2015.Breeding places, population dynamics, and distribution of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa:Rhizostomeae) in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.Hydrobiologia, 754(1):59-74,
Toyokawa M, Shibata M, Cheng J H et al.2012.First record of wild ephyrae of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai.Fisheries Science, 78(6):1213-1218,
Uye S I.2008.Blooms of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai:a threat to the fisheries sustainability of the East Asian marginal seas.Plankton and Benthos Research, 3:125-131,
Wang S W, Zhang G T, Sun S et al.2012.Population dynamics of three scyphozoan jellyfish species during summer of 2011 in Jiaozhou bay.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 43(3):471-479.(in Chinese with English abstract)
Wang Y H, Wu H, Lin J et al.2019.Phytoplankton blooms off a high turbidity estuary:a case study in the Changjiang River estuary.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 124(11):8036-8059,
Wei H, Deng L J, Wang Y H et al.2015.Giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai gathering in the Yellow Sea-a numerical study.Journal of Marine Systems, 144:107-116,
Yan L P, Li S F, Ding F Y.2004.The preliminary studies on the dynamics of macro-jellyfish resources and their relationship with fisheries in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea.Marine Fisheries, 26(1):9-12, Chinese with English Abstract)
Yang D Z, Yin B S, Sun J C et al.2013.Numerical study on the origins and the forcing mechanism of the phosphate in upwelling areas off the coast of Zhejiang province, China in summer.Journal of Marine Systems, 123-124:1-18,
Yoon W D, Lee H E, Han C et al.2014.Abundance and distribution of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae), in Korean waters in 2005-2013.Ocean Science Journal, 49(3):183-192,
Yoon W D, Yang J Y, Shim M B et al.2008.Physical processes influencing the occurrence of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa:Rhizostomeae) around Jeju island, Korea.Journal of Plankton Research, 30(3):251-260,
Zhang F, Sun S, Jin X S et al.2012.Associations of large jellyfish distributions with temperature and salinity in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.Hydrobiologia, 690(1):81-96,
Zhang Z R, Zhou M, Zhong Y S et al.2020.Spatial variations of phytoplankton biomass controlled by river plume dynamics over the lower Changjiang estuary and adjacent shelf based on high-resolution observations.Frontiers in Marine Science, 7:587539,
Zhou P, Song X X, Yuan Y Q et al.2018.Water mass analysis of the East China Sea and interannual variation of Kuroshio subsurface water intrusion through an optimum multiparameter method.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 123(5):3723-3738,
Zhu J R, Chen C S, Ding P X et al.2004.Does the Taiwan Warm Current exist in winter? Geophysical Research Letters, 31(12):L12302, 019997.
Copyright © Haiyang Xuebao